The agreement called on signatories to „consult jointly on the measures necessary to fulfil the shared responsibility set out in this declaration.“ During the discussions in Yalta, Molotov inserted language that weakened the implications of executing the declaration. [19] On August 23, 1939 – shortly before the outbreak of World War II (1939-45) in Europe – the enemies of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union surprised the world with the signing of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, in which the two countries pledged not to take military action against each other in the future. By this time, the Soviet army had fully occupied Poland and held much of Eastern Europe with military power three times greater than the Allied forces in the West. [Citation needed] The Declaration of Liberated Europe did little to dispel the sphere of influence agreements that had been included in the ceasefire agreements. The final agreement stipulated that „the provisional government, which is currently working in Poland, should therefore be reorganized on a broader democratic basis with the participation of democratic leaders from Poland and Poles abroad.“ [18] The Yalta language granted the supremacy of the pro-Soviet government of Lublin in a provisional government, although reorganized. [19] In addition, the Big Three agreed that all original governments would be returned to the invaded countries (with the exception of Romania and Bulgaria, where the Soviets had already liquidated most of the governments); and Poland, whose government-in-exile was also expelled by Stalin) and that all civilians would be repatriated. After Yalta in the USSR, when Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov expressed his fear that the wording of the Yalta Agreement might hinder Stalin`s plans, Stalin replied: „It doesn`t matter. We will do it later in our own way. [21] While the Soviet Union had already annexed several occupied countries as (or in) Soviet-controlled Soviet socialist republics,[27][28][29] other Central and Eastern European countries it occupied were transformed into Soviet-controlled satellite states, such as the Polish People`s Republic, the Hungarian People`s Republic,[30] the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic,[31] the People`s Republic of Romania, the People`s Republic of Bulgaria, the People`s Republic of Albania,[32] and later East Germany of the Soviet Zone of German Occupation. [33] Finally, the United States and the United Kingdom made concessions by recognizing the regions then dominated by the Communists and sacrificed the content of the Yalta Declaration while remaining in shape.

[34] The first reaction to the Yalta Agreements was solemn. Roosevelt and many other Americans saw this as proof that the spirit of U.S.-Soviet war cooperation would pass into the post-war period. However, this feeling was short-lived. With the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 12, 1945, Harry S. Truman became the thirty-third President of the United States. At the end of April, the new government clashed with the Soviets over its influence in Eastern Europe and the United Nations. Alarmed by the perceived lack of cooperation on the part of the Soviets, many Americans began to criticize Roosevelt`s handling of the Yalta negotiations.

To this day, many of Roosevelt`s most vocal critics accuse him of „handing over“ Eastern Europe and Northeast Asia to the Soviet Union at Yalta, even though the Soviets made many important concessions. With regard to Poland, the Yalta report goes on to state that the Provisional Government „should be obliged to hold free and unhindered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot“. [18] The agreement could not hide the importance of joining the short-term pro-Soviet control of the Lublin government and eliminating the language that calls for supervised elections. [19] Allied leaders came to Yalta knowing that an Allied victory in Europe was virtually inevitable, but less convinced that the Pacific War was coming to an end. The United States and Britain realized that a victory over Japan could require a protracted struggle and saw a great strategic advantage for Soviet participation in the Pacific theater. At Yalta, Roosevelt and Churchill discussed with Stalin the conditions under which the Soviet Union would go to war with Japan, and all three agreed that the Soviets would receive a sphere of influence in Manchuria in exchange for potentially decisive Soviet participation in the Pacific theater of war after Japan`s surrender. These included the southern part of Sakhalin, a lease at Port Arthur (now Lüshunkou), a share in the operation of the Manchu Railways and the Kuril Islands. This agreement was the most important concrete achievement of the Yalta Conference. The three Heads of State and Government tried to establish a programme for the government of post-war Europe and the maintenance of peace between the post-war countries. On the Eastern Front, the front line remained in the Soviet Union in late December 1943, but by August 1944 Soviet forces were in Poland and Romania as part of their westward advance. At the time of the conference, Red Army Marshal Georgi Zhukov`s troops were 40 miles from Berlin.

Stalin felt that his position at the conference was so strong that he could dictate the conditions. According to James F. Byrnes, a member of the U.S. delegation and future secretary of state, „it was not about what we would let the Russians do, but about what we could get the Russians to do.“ In addition, Roosevelt hoped for a commitment from Stalin to participate in the United Nations. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, US President FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT and Soviet Prime Minister JOSEPH STALIN met in Yalta, Crimea, from February 4 to 11, 1945. The conference, which was attended by the three Heads of State and Government, resulted in an agreement on the continuation of the war against Japan, the occupation of Germany, the structure of the United Nations and the fate of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria after the Second World War. The Yalta deal proved controversial, as many in the United States criticized Roosevelt for leaving Eastern Europe to the Communists. The most difficult question was the fate of the Eastern European countries that Germany had conquered during the war. The Soviet army occupied most of the territory, making it difficult for Churchill and Roosevelt to negotiate with Stalin on this point.

It was agreed that the transitional Governments of those countries would give way to democratically elected regimes as soon as possible. As for Poland, Churchill and Roosevelt left the London-based Polish government-in-exile and agreed that members of this group should work with the Soviet-dominated group based in Lublin, Poland. The big three also agreed that democracies would be established, that all liberated European countries and former axis satellite countries would hold free elections, and that order would be restored. [18] In this context, they promised to rebuild the occupied countries through processes that will allow them to „create democratic institutions of their choice. It is a principle of the Atlantic Charter – the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live. [18] The resulting report states that the three occupied countries would help form a transitional government that „commits, through free elections, to establishing as soon as possible the governments that correspond to the will of the people“ and „to facilitate, if necessary, the holding of such elections.“ [18] The three Heads of State and Government ratified the agreement of the European Consultative Commission, which set the boundaries of the post-war occupation zones for Germany: three occupation zones, one for each of the three main Allies. .