The Jews had a special status in the Greco-Roman world; As we have seen, they were exempt from the cult of the emperor and received a number of special privileges based on the observance of the Sabbath and feasts: exemption from military service, going to court on the Sabbath, and certain trade agreements. They were also allowed to settle intra-Jewish disputes according to their law and tradition, manage their own funds, and send money to Jerusalem, especially the temple tax. It is a debated question of whether Jews also had civil rights as citizens of the empire, that is, participation in public life, election of judges and the like. Josephus says they did; other sources in Roman times suggest that this was not the case, which seems more likely. In their relations with the Gentiles, Jewish practices such as the rite of circumcision and ritual laws of purity tended to distinguish them from each other, and their special privileges among the Romans brought them some ill will. Undoubtedly, many Diaspora Jews were less inclined to obey the law as strictly as in Palestine, especially since many of them cared for the Temple. On the other hand, Judaism bore witness to a high sense of morality and attracted formal converts or proselytes (especially among women who were not circumcised) as well as sympathetic followers of the God of Israel and the basic universal morality of the Torah. These were called „God-fearing,“ and we have evidence that in every synagogue, especially in the diaspora, there were groups of „gentiles“ or non-Jewish disciples who were attracted to Judaism, but not to formal and complete conversion. The De Haavara (transfer) agreement, negotiated by Eliezer Hoofein, director of the Anglo-Palestine Bank,[16] was accepted by the Reich Ministry of Economy in 1933 and continued with the decline in German government support,[17] until its dissolution in 1939. [18] Under the agreement, Jews who emigrated from Germany could use their goods to buy goods made in Germany for export, thus saving their personal wealth during emigration. The agreement provided an important export market for German factories in British-ruled Palestine.

Between November 1933 and December 31, 1937, the program exported goods worth 77,800,000 Reichsmarks, or $22,500,000 (1938 currency values), to Jewish businesses in Palestine. [17] By the time the program ended at the beginning of the Second World War, the total had risen to 105,000,000 marks (about $35,000,000,000, 1939 values). [18] There is no absolute agreement on what constitutes apocalyptic eschatology, neither in terms of origin nor content. It shows the influences of Old Testament prophecy and wisdom literature; but there are also currents of Persian dualism and Babylonian astrology. He is a child of hope and despair: the hope of God`s invincible power, the world he created and his plan and purpose for his people, but despair in the face of the current course of human history in this world. The main reason for the Jewish faith was that a true God was the Creator and Ruler of everything in Him. At the same time, the real experience of God`s people in the world was catastrophic: Assyrian and Babylonian conquest, exile to foreign lands, Persian domination, coming from the Greeks and finally from the Romans. The burdens of war, occupation, forced Hellenization and taxation by the imperialist powers have produced an unbearable experience of alienation and powerlessness. Human history was a virtual descent into hell. But God was the ruler of all things, and therefore He had to predestine the tragic events of human history.

So there was a divine plan by which the horrors of history would reach their climax and everything would change. The hope was that the world would become largely the same as it had been in early times: a paradise in which God`s chosen people would be confirmed. This change would be marked by enormous historical and cosmic catastrophes. In the meantime, God`s people had to prepare for change and pay attention to the signs of Their coming. I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of the sky, one came as a Son of Man, and he came to the antiquity of the days and was presented before him. And he was given dominion, glory, and kingdom, that all peoples, all nations, and all tongues might serve him; His reign is an eternal dominion that will not pass, and his kingdom is a kingdom that must not be destroyed. There are many other forms of apocalyptic hope. The Ascension of Moses, a work of the New Testament, is particularly interesting because it uses the „kingdom of God,“ a key term in Jesus` teaching. Another form of this hope is associated with the coming of a son of David, found in the first century BC.

C in the form of a document called the Psalms of Solomon. Despite the variety of expressions, the hope for a series of culminating events that will lead to God`s final and eschatological intervention in human history is constant, either directly or through mediating figures. Through these events, the world would be changed forever, transformed into a perfect world where God`s people would be blessed forever for their faithfulness and enemies and God would be punished forever. When Judaism emerged from the Babylonian conquest and exile, it inherited the Israelite religion`s emphasis on monotheism: „Listen, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.“ (Deut 6:4). God`s name, Yahweh, had become too holy to pronounce and was replaced by Adonai („Lord“). According to Genesis 15–17, God had made an agreement or covenant with Abraham that the land of Canaan would be given to Abraham and his descendants. A sign, the circumcision of each male child, had sealed this agreement. The covenant meant that the Jews believed that they were God`s special people, His chosen or chosen people, with the mission of becoming „a light unto the nations.“ As the authors of Israel`s historical traditions have said, God created the world, freed His people from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the land of Canaan. God also made other covenants, that is, agreements on law and monarchy, one with Moses and the other with David. God had revealed Himself and His plan for His people; but when the king or the people ignored the covenant, they were subject to God`s just punishment. Jewish history begins with the covenant made between God and Abraham around 1812 BC.

J.-C. (more than 3,800 years ago) during the Bronze Age in the Middle East. „Judaism“ in Jesus` day is better called „Judaism“ because it can encompass a rich variety of forms and practices that flourished in the late Second Temple period (200 BC). C-70 AD). Somehow, this diverse „Jewish“ culture goes back to the Hebrew Bible and the history of the ancient Israelites. In Roman times, when the ten northern tribes were deported long ago to Assyrian captivity and largely lost in history, it became customary to refer to all those of Hebrew or Israelite origin who lived in the Roman Mediterranean world as „Jews“ and their religious and cultural life as „Judaism“. Abraham`s covenant with God marked the beginning of Judaism and is the reason why Jews often refer to Abraham as Avraham Avinu (Abraham, our Father). The deal has been controversial both within the NSDAP and within the Zionist movement. As historian Edwin Black put it, „the transfer agreement tore the Jewish world apart by pitting leaders against leaders, threatening rebellion and even murder.“ [23] Resistance came in particular from key American leaders of the World Zionist Congress, particularly Abba Hillel Silver and the president of the American Jewish Congress, Rabbi Stephen Wise. [24] Weise and other leaders of the 1933 anti-Nazi boycott opposed the agreement and narrowly failed to convince the Xix Zionist Congress in August 1935 to vote against it.

[23] Meanwhile, the Idumenian Antipater, and in particular one of his sons, Herod („the Great“), were intelligent enough to change allegiance to a number of Romans– Pompey, Julius Caesar, Cassius, Antony and finally Octavian – and in this way Herod emerged as a powerful puppet king (ethnarch) among the Romans (reigned 37-4 BC.C E). .